Category Archives: Publications

A quetzal from one of the temple walls at Teotihuacan, Mexico, photographed in 1982. This serves to represent culture in danger of being forgotten. Contributed anonymously.

CFP Special Issue on VR for Culture and Heritage (Presence MIT Press)

The MIT Press Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments is pleased to announce a highly exciting special issue on VR for Culture and Heritage (published yesterday our website). I’ve included a brief guide on the topics below for your information, an extended summary of scope are in the PDF file attached. The special issue is highly interdisciplinary in nature and therefore, submissions which promote collaboration between the science and engineering and arts and humanities are looked upon favourably. Please help us to disseminate the CFP to your networks. We hope to hear from you and your networks of experts.

A quetzal from one of the temple walls at Teotihuacan, Mexico, photographed in 1982. This serves to represent culture in danger of being forgotten. Contributed anonymously.

A quetzal from one of the temple walls at Teotihuacan, Mexico, photographed in 1982. This serves to represent culture in danger of being forgotten. Contributed anonymously.

Guest Editors
Eugene Ch’ng, NVIDIA Joint-Lab on Mixed Reality, University of Nottingham Ningbo China

Yiyu Cai, School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

Zhigang Pan, Digital Media and HCI Research Center,  Hangzhou Normal University, China

Harold Thwaites, Centre for Research Creation in Digital Media, Sunway University, Malaysia

Scope of the Special Issue
Human culture is profound and is constantly evolving and changing. Heritage, on the other hand, remains perpetually frozen in time, molded or engraved in tangible materials as a testament to past cultures. Yet some intangible heritage lives on, sewn into the intermingled fabric of present cultures. Others are at risk of diminishing as newer generations, enticed by disparate modern cultures, shun the traditions that were handed down to them. This special issue aims to gather researchers working on all aspects of culture and heritage that uses virtual environments or aspects of the mixed reality continuum to conserve, analyze and communicate contents from the past and the present. It therefore encompasses contemporary public facing work in GLAMs (Galleries, Libraries, Archives and Museums), and the backdrop of in-depth investigations to bring to light the contents and contexts of culture and heritage via virtual environments.

This call for papers is a continuation of the previous special issue on Virtual Heritage: Cultural Agents, Environments, and Objects, PRESENCE 24(3), which highlighted the need for closer inspection of our method of work in merging often disparate focuses from multiple disciplines:

“Opportunities in better heritage technologies are due to the digital revolution. Yet, any researchers in the more technical disciplines aiming to make use of digital technologies for heritage must be careful so as not to be overly focused on technology itself, lest the cultural heritage content that technology is meant to convey becomes secondary. Digital technology must support the research, conservation, and communication of cultural heritage, and reciprocally, heritage data used for developing better technologies for supporting heritage research is encouraged.”

The previous special issue also brought to light the state of work and present thoughts on virtual heritage research, particularly on cultural agents, cultural environments, and cultural objects and 3D printing.

Submission Topics
Virtual heritage is a testament to the impact of digital transformation in the arts and humanities, and a driving force for technological innovation generated through the arts and humanities’ increasing appetite for digital technology. In this special issue, we aim to examine present trends in culture and heritage within the context of virtual reality and augmented reality. The scope of the special issue includes the following topics:

  • New approaches in culture and heritage applications and interpretations
  • Responsive, adaptive and evolvable behaviors in immersive virtual environments that capture culture and tangible and intangible heritage
  • Multiuser virtual environments 
  • Mixed reality and the experience of real and virtual environments
  • Presence and phenomenology in culture and heritage applications
  • High definition imaging, stereoscopic displays, interactive cinema
  • Intelligent and High Performance Computing for Virtual Cultural Heritage
  • Ubiquitous computing and new forms of culture and heritage representations via VR and AR
  • VR and AR in Galleries, Libraries, Archives and Museums
  • Interactive Exhibits in Public Spaces
  • Digital Transformations of Museums with Immersive & Interactive Time Machines
  • VR and AR as a narrative
  • Education in culture and heritage via VR and AR
  • Tools, techniques, frameworks and methodologies
  • Virtual environments case studies 

• Manuscript submission deadline: March 1, 2017
• Final revisions: September 1, 2017
• Planned publication: PRESENCE 27-1 (Early 2018)

Manuscripts should conform to the journal’s submission guidelines:

Authors, please note that audio and video files can be hosted as supplementary onlinematerial accompanying published articles. For more information about multimedia file formats and submission guidelines, please contact

Dr. Eugene Ch’ng, Director, NVIDIA Joint-Lab on Mixed Reality, University of Nottingham (China Campus). Email:

Further information:

Crowd behaviour Mining at the Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition 2015

Crowd Behavior Mining with Virtual Environments

Crowd Behavior Mining with Virtual Environments

Invited article – Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments, MIT Press. [link]

This article explores ways in which virtual environments can be used for crowdsourcing and behavior mining for filling gaps within the information space of topical research. Behavior mining in this article refers to the act of harvesting the latent or instinctive behavior of participants, usually a crowd, and injecting the population behavior into a pre-set context, such as within a virtual environment so that the subjective behaviors and the contexts are merged. The experimental approach combines various modalities centered upon virtual environments so as to induce presence in order to bring participants into the context. This approach is new and not well studied, however, it has real potentials in research dealing with behaviors and culture in reconstructed virtual environments. Two virtual environments case studies at the 2012 and 2015 Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition were presented, which demonstrated that the unique crowdsourcing activity is able to fill up gaps within the information space so that answers to research questions can be more complete. Thus, by reconstructing and replicating a lost landscape, and by injecting harvested human behavior into the context of the landscape, we may be able to gather much more information than conventional methods will allow.

Crowd behaviour Mining at the Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition 2015

Crowd behaviour Mining at the Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition 2015


Special Issue on Virtual Heritage: Cultural Agents, Environments, and Objects

Special Issue on Virtual Heritage: Cultural Agents, Environments, and Objects is published!

Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, MIT PRESS

Guest Editor’s Introduction:



Virtual heritage – the use of digital technology and virtual environments for researching, conserving and conveying our cultural heritage, offers exciting new ways to learn and experience the cultural treasures of the world, both past and present.

Virtual heritage has its origin at the formation of the Virtual Systems and Multimedia (VSMM) Society conference at Gifu, Japan in 1995, and can be attributed to many of the champions (Addison, 2000; Refsland, Ojika, Addison, & Stone, 2000; Stone & Ojika, 2000) of this particular strand of work. Since then, the heritage community has witnessed considerable investment from various institutions for heritage works that involve or are related to the use of digital technology, particularly with one of the larger funding bodies in Europe. Two notable projects totaling 10 million euros that has garnered wide media attention for their discoveries, including being selected as exhibits for the 2012 and 2015 Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition, bear witness to the importance of digital- and technology-oriented heritage projects. These two complex archaeological heritage projects with large spatial-temporal scales – Europe’s Lost World and the Stonehenge Hidden Landscapes project are pushing technological boundaries beyond what contemporary techniques can afford (see Ch’ng et al., 2011; Gaffney, Fitch, & Smith, 2009; Gaffney, Thomson, & Fitch, 2007). These are specimen works that has demonstrated that heritage could contribute to pioneering geophysics instrumentations, digital and computational approaches. Many other funded projects worldwide involving cutting-edge technologies overseen by a consortium of academic and heritage institutions are pioneers to the many digital heritage innovations today, the list of which is too numerous to be listed here. The support for heritage research has important meaning, as stated in the European Commission’s website: “Cultural heritage enriches the individual lives of citizens, is a driving force for the cultural and creative sectors, and plays a role in creating and enhancing Europe’s social capital. It is also an important resource for economic growth, employment and social cohesion, offering the potential to revitalise urban and rural areas and promote sustainable tourism.” (EC, 2015)… [continue reading]


Social Information Landscapes of the Boston Bombing Fans

Fans of Boston Bombing Terrorist Tracked Online Via Big Data Research

The interest of this research lies in the controversial online teen #FreeJahar movement calling for the freedom of the Boston bombing suspect Dzhokhar Tsarnaev because teenage girls believe he is “too beautiful to be a terrorist” (Nelson, 2013). Concerns were raised that in on-line forums the younger Boston Bombing suspect appeared to attract a cult teen following expressing affection and concern for him (DailyMail, 2013). Facebook, Tumblr tribute accounts were set up in support of the teen with the #FreeJahar Twitter tag, which were trending when these activities first appeared. Teen activities in Twitter do need to be monitored (Wiederhold, 2012) as observed below:

  • “I can’t be the only one who finds the suspected bomber to be sexy, can I?” 19 April 2013.
  • “i don’t even care if jahar is a terrorist he’s cute i don’t want him to die.” @******, 20 April 2013.
  • “I’m not gonna lie, the second bombing suspect, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, is hot. #sorrynotsorry” @******, 20 April 2013.
  • “Yes I like Justin Bieber and I like Jahar but that has nothing to do with why i support him. I know hes innocent, he is far too beautiful” @******, 25 April 2013.
  • “How many RT’s for our boy jahar look at that beautiful face #freejahar” @******, 4 May 2013.
  • “Getting one of Jahar’s tweets tattooed on me tomorrow. Guess you could say I’m a #FreeJahar supporter,” @******, 7 May 2013.

I started building scalable algorithms on scalable hardware-software platforms which I developed in 2013 due to the interest above. The research is now published.

Social Information Landscapes of the Boston Bombing Fans

Social Information Landscapes of the Boston Bombing Fans

Abstract of Paper “The Bottom-Up Formation and Maintenance of a Twitter Community: Analysis of the #FreeJahar Twitter Community” [Link to Article]

Purpose – The article explores the formation, maintenance and disintegration of a fringe Twitter community in order to understand if offline community structure applies to online communities

Design/methodology/approach – The research adopted Big Data methodological approaches in tracking user-generated contents over a series of months and mapped online Twitter interactions as a multimodal, longitudinal ‘social information landscape’. Centrality measures were employed to gauge the importance of particular user nodes within the complete network and time-series analysis were used to track ego centralities in order to see if this particular online communities were maintained by specific egos.

Findings – The case study shows that communities with distinct boundaries and memberships can form and exist within Twitter’s limited user content and sequential policies, which unlike other social media services, do not support formal groups, demonstrating the resilience of desperate online users when their ideology overcome social media limitations. Analysis in this article using social networks approaches also reveals that communities are formed and maintained from the bottom-up.

Research limitations/implications – The research data is based on a particular dataset which occurred within a specific time and space. However, due to the rapid, polarising group behaviour, growth, disintegration and decline of the online community, the dataset presents a ‘laboratory’ case from which many other online community can be compared with. It is highly possible that the case can be generalised to a broader range of communities and from which online community theories can be proved/disproved.

Practical implications – The article showed that particular group of egos with high activities, if removed, could entirely break the cohesiveness of the community. Conversely, strengthening such egos will reinforce the community strength. The questions mooted within the paper and the methodology outlined can potentially be applied in a variety of social science research areas. The contribution to the understanding of a complex social and political arena, as outlined in the paper, is a key example of such an application within an increasingly strategic research area ­ and this will surely be applied and developed further by the computer science and security community.

Originality/value – The majority of researches that cover these domains have not focused on communities that are multimodal and longitudinal. This is mainly due to the challenges associated with the collection and analysis of continuous datasets that have high volume and velocity. Such datasets are therefore unexploited with regards to cyber-community research.

Keywords – Social network analysis, big data, twitter, online communities, social media, multimodal network, longitudinal network, freejahar, centrality measure

Four other research papers describes the process:

  1. Ch’ng E. (2015) The Bottom-Up Formation and Maintenance of a Twitter Community: Analysis of the #FreeJahar Twitter Community, Industrial Management & Data Systems 115(4), p.612-624. [Link to Article]
  2. Ch’ng E. (2015) Social Information Landscapes: Automated Mapping of Large Multimodal, Longitudinal Social Networks, Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 115 Iss: 9, pp.1724 – 1751 [Link to Article]
  3. Ch’ng E. (2015) Local Interactions and the Emergence and Maintenance of a Twitter Small-World Network, Social Networking 4(2), p.33-40. [Link to Article]
  4. E. Ch’ng (2014) The Value of Using Big Data Technology in Computational Social Science, The 3rd ASE Big Data Science Conference, 4-7 August 2014, Tsinghua University Beijing China. [Link to Article]


Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition 2015

Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition 2015: Stonehenge Hidden Landscapes


I was invited for the second time to participate at the Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition 2015 held in London 30 June – 5 July. Our exhibit featured the Stonehenge Hidden Landscapes project, with the discovery of 17 monuments using remote sensing methods and VR visualisation. I developed a multitouch table system for acquiring human behaviour, described in an invited article “Crowd Behaviour Mining with Virtual Environments” published in PRESENCE: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments [pdf].

Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition 2015

Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition 2015

Reference Article: Ch’ng, E. (2015) Crowd Behaviour Mining with Virtual Environments, Invited Article, PRESENCE 24(4), p347–358.

Link: Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition 2015

Visual Heritage in the Digital Age, Springer Series on Cultural Computing

Visual Heritage in the Digital Age Springer

Visual Heritage in the Digital Age

My edited book titled “Visual Heritage in the Digital Age” recently got published in the Springer Series on Cultural Computing. The articles presented in the volume relates to research within the domains of digital heritage and computational archaeology. [Link to Publisher Page]

Keywords » Computational Archaeology – Cultural Technologies – Digital Heritage – Heritage Computing – Modelling Landscape Change – Visualisation of Space and Movement

Heritage is everywhere, and an understanding of our past is increasingly critical to the understanding of our contemporary cultural context and place in global society. Visual Heritage in the Digital Age presents the state-of-the-art in the application of digital technologies to heritage studies, with the chapters collectively demonstrating the ways in which current developments are liberating the study, conservation and management of the past. Digital approaches to heritage have developed significantly over recent decades in terms of both the quantity and range of applications. However, rather than merely improving and enriching the ways in which we understand and engage with the past, this technology is enabling us to do this in entirely new ways.

The chapters contained within this volume present a broad range of technologies for capturing data (such as high-definition laser scanning survey and geophysical survey), modelling (including GIS, data fusion, agent-based modelling), and engaging with heritage through novel digital interfaces (mobile technologies and the use of multi-touch interfaces in public spaces). The case studies presented include sites, landscapes and buildings from across Europe, North and Central America, and collections relating to the ancient civilisations of the Middle East and North Africa. The chronological span is immense, extending from the end of the last ice age through to the twentieth century. These case studies reveal new ways of approaching heritage using digital tools, whether from the perspective of interrogating historical textual data, or through the applications of complexity theory and the modelling of agents and behaviours. Beyond the data itself, Visual Heritage in the Digital Age also presents fresh ways of thinking about digital heritage. It explores more theoretical perspectives concerning the role of digital data and the challenges that are presented in terms of its management and preservation.

The Warren Field Pit Alignment On The Mid Winter Solstice (World’s Oldest Calendar)

V. Gaffney, S. Fitch, E. Ramsey, R. Yorston, E. Ch’ng, E. Baldwin, R. Bates, C. Gaffney, C. Ruggles, T. Sparrow, A. McMillan, D. Cowley, S. Fraser, C. Murray, H. Murray, E. Hopla and A. Howard (2013) ‘Time and a Place: A luni-solar ‘time-reckoner’ from 8th millennium BC Scotland’, Internet Archaeology 34

[Link to Journal]

The capacity to conceptualise and measure time is amongst the most important achievements of human societies, and the issue of when time was “created” by humankind is critical in understanding how society has developed. A pit alignment, recently excavated in Aberdeenshire (Scotland), provides a new contribution to this debate. This structure, dated to the 8th millennium BC, has been re-analysed by a team led from the IBM VISTA Centre and the results suggest that the pit group may have acquired basic calendrical functions through observation of the repeated cycles of the Moon. The pit group appears to mimic the phases of the Moon and the 12 pits are structured to track lunar months. The monument also aligns on the southeast horizon and a prominent topographic point associated with sunrise on the midwinter solstice. In doing so the monument anticipates problems associated with simple lunar calendars by providing an annual astronomic correction in order to maintain the link between the passage of time indicated by the Moon, the asynchronous solar year, and the associated seasons.  The site may therefore provide the earliest evidence currently available for “time reckoning” and suggests that hunter-gatherer societies in Scotland had both the need and ability to track time across the year, and also perhaps within the month, and that this occurred at a period nearly five thousand years before the first formal calendars were created in Mesopotamia.

Birmingham researchers working with colleagues from Bradford, St Andrews, the Scottish National Trust, the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland and Murray Archaeological Associates have resurveyed and re-analysed the site and the results of this work have been published in the paper “Time and a Place: a lunisolar ‘time reckoner’ from 8th millennium Scotland” Internet Archaeology, July 2013.  Aside from the results contained within the paper staff at IBM VISTA have provided a virtual recreation of the site and the rising sun and this is reproduced below.

More info at:

Complex Systems Simulation

Model Resolution in Complex Systems Simulation: Agent Preferences, Behaviour, Dynamics and N-Tiered Networks

Agent-based modelling is a process of representing and simulating the intentions, behaviours and actions of complex systems with the goal of understanding specific phenomenon related to the communications within complex systems that produces emergent behaviour and self-organisation, or for predicting spatial or behavioural patterns of individuals or groups of interacting entities. Agent-based modelling, also termed multiagent systems, or in ecological simulation, individual-based model spans simple to highly complex systems, their interactions can be difficult to implement and optimise programmatically particularly when there could be hundreds of thousands of agents within a community that have multiple levels of communication. The resolution and the scale of simulation is an especially important component that could determine the accuracy of the models. This article focuses on the model resolution of complex systems, facilitated by an object-oriented communications framework, a foundation for the simulation of the fine resolution of the dynamics, behaviour, preferences, interaction and n-tiered trophic networks, including the simulated environments they inhabit. It dissects individual agents with a view to modelling and simulating fine behaviours amongst a population of agent-types in n-tiered networks, scalable to hundreds of thousands of species using mathematically defined behaviour, efficient algorithms and adaptive data structures as support for the simulations.


Ch’ng, E. (2013) Model Resolution in Complex Systems Simulation: Agent Preferences, Behaviour, Dynamics and N-Tiered Networks, Special Issue on Agent-based Modeling and Simulation of Complex Adaptive Communication Networks and Environments (CACOONS), Simulation: Transactions of the Society for Modeling and Simulation International [link]



Positive and Negative Feedback in Dual-Species Emitter Interaction

Macro and Micro Environment for Diversity of Behaviour in Artificial Life Simulation

The complexity of artificial life is produced not only via their genotype, but also by the environment that they thrive in. Past artificial life research focuses on the evolutionary behavior of artificial organisms from an intrinsic perspective of how concepts such as crossover and mutation increase the fitness of the organism, others focus on the emergent macrostate of a simulation that arises out of the local interaction of entities. This research aims to introduce an additional ‘affector’ into artificial life simulations, namely, an enhanced environment where an added dimension of complex behaviour can be produced through the use of environment emitters.

Ch’ng E. (2012) Macro and Micro Environment for Diversity of Behaviour in Artificial Life Simulation, Artificial Life Session, The 6th International Conference on Soft Computing and Intelligent Systems, The 13th International Symposium on Advanced Intelligent Systems, 20-24 November 2012, Kobe, Japan. [working copy]